Data & Analytics

Creating A Basic iTunes ETL With Python And AWS Data Wrangler

In this post I will use Python and AWS Data Wrangler to create a basic iTunes ETL that extracts data from an iTunes export file into a Pandas DataFrame.

Table of Contents


For many years I have enjoyed various forms of dance music. Starting with my first compilation CDs in 2000, I’ve since amassed a large collection of records, CDs and virtual media ranging from the late 80s to modern times.

I started using iTunes as my main media player in 2010. Since then I have built up a large database of iTunes metadata that includes various counts, ratings and timestamps.

Currently I use this data for a series of iTunes Smart Playlists. To derive further meaning from the data and to practise my Python skills, I want to extract this data from iTunes and analyse it using the various data tools at my disposal.

To get the ball rolling I’m going to build a basic iTunes ETL, which I will continue to develop over the coming months.

Let’s start by looking at the iTunes export process.

iTunes Export Files

I use iTunes This isn’t by choice – iTunes is the last version with a built-in App Store, allowing my battered old iPhone 3GS to live on in its second life as an iPod Touch:

Still works!

I mention this as newer versions of iTunes may be different, or may not offer an export feature at all. Why do I persist with this ageing setup? That…is a post for another time.

Every week I sync my Not-iPhone via iTunes, and then create an export of my master playlist:

iTunes doesn’t have many export options, and exports playlists as tab-delimited txt files by default:

To give myself an easier time for this post, I manually made the following changes to a recent iTunes export file:

  • Imported the txt file into Microsoft Excel.
  • Removed columns I didn’t want.
  • Saved the altered file as a csv.
  • Uploaded the csv to Amazon S3.

This Franken-File will be what I use to build my basic iTunes ETL. I understand there are ways of dealing with txt files in Python – I’ll be exploring this in future posts.


Before starting to write any code, I have done the following:


During this post, I will make several decisions that will be revisited in the coming months as my skills improve. I have taken steps to protect my AWS credentials (more on that shortly) but at this stage my basic iTunes ETL Python script is a work in progress and should not be used in a Production environment.

Creating Secure Variables

My first job is to create the variables I’m going to need. As these variables can compromise my AWS account in the wrong hands, I want to create them as securely as possible.

The topic of security is something I will be returning to in future posts. For now, I’m using a similar method to PowerShell’s Dot Sourcing in last month’s post.

Python’s import statement can import other Python scripts in the same way as modules. With this in mind, I create a new file for my variables.

Importing ETL_ITU_Play_Variables into my main script will allow Python to locate the variables and call them successfully:

import ETL_ITU_Play_Variables

aws_accesskey = ETL_ITU_Play_Variables.AWS_ACCESSKEY
aws_secret = ETL_ITU_Play_Variables.AWS_SECRET

Next I create a gitignore file and add to it. I can now use these variables in my local environment, safe in the knowledge that Git will not track ETL_ITU_Play_Variables and will not include it in any commits.

With that taken care of, I need two sets of variables.

Creating Authentication Variables

AWS authenticates every request before completing it. As none of my AWS resources are public, I need to provide credentials that have the necessary IAM permissions.

There are various ways to provide these credentials – in this case I’m using an AWS Access Key / Secret Key combination with a variable for each string:

aws_accesskey = 'accesskey123456789'
aws_secretkey = 'secretkey123456789'

As additional security, these keys belong to a new IAM user that only has permission to read S3 objects in the appropriate bucket.

I now need a way to pass these keys to AWS. I use the AWS SDK for Python (Boto3) for this, creating a session variable using boto3.session.Session

session = boto3.session.Session
aws_access_key_id = aws_accesskey,
aws_secret_access_key = aws_secret

Creating S3 Variables

Next I create the S3 variables I need. I use s3_bucket for the bucket name and s3_prefix for the iTunes export csv‘s bucket prefix.

s3_bucket = 'example-my-bucket'
s3_prefix = 'Example/MyPath/'

I then use these variables to create s3_path for AWS Data Wrangler to use:

s3_path = f"s3://{s3_bucket}/{s3_prefix}"

Making The ETL

With my variables in place, I can start working on my basic iTunes ETL! AWS is now accepting my requests, so let’s start configuring AWS Data Wrangler.

Creating The DataFrame

AWS Data Wrangler is essentially Pandas on AWS, and the two tools share many commands. This DataEng Uncomplicated AWS Data Wrangler Overview does a great job of explaining the fundamentals:

I read the iTunes Export csv‘s contents by using awswrangler.s3.read_csv with the following parameters:

  • path: My s3_path variable.
  • path_suffix: The files I want to read, in this case .csv.
  • boto3_session: My session variable.

This reads all the csv files in the S3 path, which is fine for now.

df = wr.s3.read_csv(path = s3_path,
                    path_suffix = ".csv",
                    boto3_session = session

I can then print the columns in a DataFrame:

print (f'Dataframe columns are {df.columns}')
Dataframe columns are Index(['Name', 'Artist', 'Album', 'Genre', 'Time', 'Track Number', 'Year', 'Date Modified', 'Date Added', 'Bit Rate', 'Plays', 'Last Played', 'Skips', 'Last Skipped', 'My Rating', 'Location'], dtype='object')

Deleting Unnecessary Columns

Having seen the list of columns, there are some I don’t need. I can get rid of them using pandas.DataFrame.drop:

df = df.drop(columns=
        'Bit Rate',
        'Last Skipped',

Now, when I print the list of columns, the removed columns are no longer included:

print (f'Dataframe columns are now {df.columns}')
Dataframe columns are now Index(['Name', 'Artist', 'Album', 'Genre', 'Track Number', 'Year', 'Date Modified', 'Date Added', 'Plays', 'Last Played', 'My Rating'], dtype='object')

Renaming Columns

Next, I want to rename the columns. I use pandas.DataFrame.rename to map the current column names to the new ones:

df = df.rename(columns=
        'Name' : 'name',
        'Artist' : 'artist',
        'Album' : 'album',
        'Genre' : 'genre',
        'Track Number' : 'tracknumber',
        'Year' : 'year',
        'Date Modified' : 'datemodified',
        'Date Added' : 'dateadded',
        'Plays' : 'plays',
        'Last Played' : 'lastplayed',
        'My Rating' : 'myrating'

The columns are now changed to:

print (f'Dataframe columns are now named {df.columns}')
Dataframe columns are now named Index(['name', 'artist', 'album', 'genre', 'tracknumber', 'year', 'datemodified', 'dateadded', 'plays', 'lastplayed', 'myrating'], dtype='object')

Reformatting DateTime Columns

I now want to make sure that the dates in my DataFrame are stored in ISO 8601 format, as this will make them earlier to work with and report against.

When I print the dateadded column as an example, the dates are not currently in this format:

print (f'Dataframe Date Added column is {df.dateadded}')
1       05/04/2021 13:29
2       26/01/2019 18:25
3       30/12/2016 17:34
4       12/12/2015 00:43

I can resolve this using the dayfirst and yearfirst arguments of pandas.to_datetime:

df['dateadded'] = pd.to_datetime(df['dateadded'],yearfirst=False,dayfirst=True)

This tells Pandas how to interpret the dates. In the case of 05/04/2021, dayfirst=True tells Pandas this is 5th April 2021, as opposed to 4th May 2021.

Pandas then parses the rest of my dates in the same way, giving me the formatting I want:

1      2021-04-05 13:29:00
2      2019-01-26 18:25:00
3      2016-12-30 17:34:00
4      2015-12-12 00:43:00

I repeat this for the datemodified and lastplayed columns.

Creating Date Columns From DateTime Columns

I now want to create some new columns in my DataFrame.

The first of these new columns will mirror the values in the existing date columns. However, these columns will not contain the full timestamp – they will only contain the date instead. This will make it easier to aggregate my data.

To do this, I use to create three new columns in the DataFrame:

df['datemodifieddate'] = df['datemodified']
df['dateaddeddate'] = df['dateadded']
df['lastplayeddate'] = df['lastplayed']

The new columns retain the original date values and remove the unneeded time values:

print (f'Dataframe Date Added Date column is {df.dateaddeddate}')
1       2021-04-05
2       2019-01-26
3       2016-12-30
4       2015-12-12

Creating Simplified Rating Columns

I now want to add another column to the DataFrame to simplify reporting against a track’s rating. Ratings in iTunes export files appear in multiples of twenty:

  • 1 star = 20
  • 2 stars = 40
  • 3 stars = 60
  • 4 stars = 80
  • 5 stars = 100

In my current DataFrame, printing myrating produces this:

print (f'Dataframe My Rating is {df.myrating}')
1        40.0
2        40.0
3        60.0
4        80.0

This produces a disconnect between the data in the DataFrame and the data in the iTunes GUI. I would prefer to keep things simple by having a column where the rating value mirrors the iTunes GUI.

This can be added to my DataFrame by using a function. I define an itunes_rating function that will return an integer based on the value that is passed to it:

def itunes_rating(r):
    """Converts ratings in export file to familiar format"""
    if r == 20:
        return 1
    elif r == 40:
        return 2
    elif r == 60:
        return 3
    elif r == 80:
        return 4
    elif r == 100:
        return 5
        return 0

I then create a new myratingdigit column in my DataFrame by passing each value in the myrating column to the itunes_rating function and capturing the result:

df['myratingdigit'] = df['myrating'].apply(itunes_rating)

And when I print the new column, the results are as expected:

print (f'Dataframe My Rating Digit is {df.myratingdigit}')
1       2
2       2
3       3
4       4

Setting Data Types

Finally, I want to make sure the DataFrame is using the correct data types for each column. Pandas will usually infer data types correctly but doesn’t always get it right.

I can use pandas.DataFrame.dtypes to see the current data types in my DataFrame. At the moment they are:

name                        object
artist                      object
album                       object
genre                       object
tracknumber                  int64
year                         int64
datemodified        datetime64[ns]
dateadded           datetime64[ns]
plays                      float64
lastplayed          datetime64[ns]
myrating                   float64
datemodifieddate            object
dateaddeddate               object
lastplayeddate              object
myratingdigit                int64

Most of these are correct but some need changing. For example, plays will never have decimal places so should be int, and columns like datemodifieddate should be datetime64.

Pandas has several options for this, which are laid out in this helpful Stack Overflow thread. Here, I use astype to assign data types to my dataframe:

df = df.astype(
        'name' : str,
        'artist' : str,
        'album' : str,
        'genre' : str,
        'tracknumber' : int,
        'year' : int,
        'datemodified' : datetime64,
        'dateadded' : datetime64,
        'plays' : int,
        'lastplayed' : datetime64,
        'myrating' : int,
        'datemodifieddate' : datetime64,
        'dateaddeddate' : datetime64,
        'lastplayeddate' : datetime64,
        'myratingint' : int

Pandas uses NumPy datetime64 dtypes for working with time series data, so I import it at the top of my script:

from numpy import datetime64

Fixing A Casting Exception

Unfortunately, while testing the newly assigned dtypes I started getting an error:

Exception has occurred: IntCastingNaNError
Cannot convert non-finite values (NA or inf) to integer

This error means that at least one of the columns I’m trying to cast as int contains an empty value. An infinite value is possible, but unlikely due to the various integrity checks iTunes performs on its library.

To find the empty values, I create a second DataFrame using the data in the first, using pandas.DataFrame.isna and pandas.DataFrame.any to find any NA values:

df1 = df[df.isna().any(axis=1)]

Included within the resulting DataFrame were the following tracks:

3571	7 Hours (Original Mix)	Dan Stone	07A-Dm	...	2019-01-26	NaT	1

3575	8th Wonder (Espen & Stian Remix)	8 Wonders	04A-Fm	...	2019-01-26	NaT	1

Checking iTunes shows that these tracks have no plays:

iTunes represents no plays as an empty string as opposed to a zero. This is then extracted into the DataFrame as NA, causing the IntCastingNaN error.

To fix this, I use pandas.DataFrame.fillna to replace the empty fields with zero. Although only the plays column is generating the error, I apply fillna to all the columns being cast as int to prevent any future problems for the ETL:

df['tracknumber'] = df['tracknumber'].fillna(0)
df['year'] = df['year'].fillna(0)
df['plays'] = df['plays'].fillna(0)
df['myrating'] = df['myrating'].fillna(0)

The myratingint column doesn’t need this approach, since my itunes_rating function always returns zero if no conditions are met.

This time, printing the data types shows an acceptable list:

name                        object
artist                      object
album                       object
genre                       object
tracknumber                  int64
year                         int64
datemodified        datetime64[ns]
dateadded           datetime64[ns]
plays                        int64
lastplayed          datetime64[ns]
myrating                     int64
datemodifieddate    datetime64[ns]
dateaddeddate       datetime64[ns]
lastplayeddate      datetime64[ns]
myratingdigit                int64

Exporting The DataFrame As A CSV

This is as far as I’m going to take the DataFrame in this post. As a final check, I want to extract the DataFrame in some form to confirm its suitability for future work I have planned.

The quickest way to do this is with pandas.DataFrame.to_csv. This writes the entire DataFrame to a csv file. When I run:


A ETL-ITU.csv file is created in the terminal’s working directory that can be viewed and sandboxed as needed.


My gitignore file commit from 2022-07-17 can be viewed here:

Basic_iTunes_Python_ETL .gitignore on GitHub

My file commit from 2022-07-17 can be viewed here: on GitHub

A requirements.txt file has also been created to aid installation. The file commit from 2022-07-20 can be viewed here:

Basic_iTunes_Python_ETL requirements.txt on GitHub


In this post I used Python and AWS Data Wrangler to create a basic iTunes ETL that extracts data from an iTunes export file into a Pandas DataFrame. I have used various Python modules to extract and transform the data, and the data is now ready to be loaded to a staging area of my choosing.

Expect to see further posts on this in the coming months. This basic iTunes ETL probably won’t stay basic for long!

If this post has been useful, please feel free to follow me on the following platforms for future updates:

Thanks for reading ~~^~~

Data & Analytics

Using Athena To Query S3 Inventory Parquet Objects

In this post I’ll be using Amazon Athena to query data created by the S3 Inventory service.

When I wrote about my first impressions of S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval last month, I noticed some of my S3 Inventory graphs showed figures I didn’t expect. I couldn’t remember many of the objects in the InMotion bucket, and didn’t know that some were in Standard! I went through the bucket manually and found the Standard objects, but still had other questions that I wasn’t keen on solving by hand.

So while I was on-call over Christmas I decided to take a closer look at Athena – the AWS serverless query service designed to analyse data in S3. I’ve used existing setups at work but this was my first time experiencing it from scratch, and I made use of the AWS documentation about querying Amazon S3 Inventory with Amazon Athena and the Andy Grimes blog “Manage and analyze your data at scale using Amazon S3 Inventory and Amazon Athena” to fill in the blanks.

We’ve Got a File On You

First I created an empty s3inventory Athena database. Then I created a s3inventorytable table using the script below, specifying the 2022-01-01 symlink.txt Hive object created by S3 Inventory as the data source:

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE s3inventorytable(
         bucket string,
         key string,
         version_id string,
         is_latest boolean,
         is_delete_marker boolean,
         size bigint,
         last_modified_date bigint,
         e_tag string,
         storage_class string,
         is_multipart_uploaded boolean,
         replication_status string,
         encryption_status string,
         object_lock_retain_until_date bigint,
         object_lock_mode string,
         object_lock_legal_hold_status string,
         intelligent_tiering_access_tier string,
         bucket_key_status string
  LOCATION 's3://[REDACTED]/hive/dt=2022-01-01-01-00/';

Then I ran a query to determine the storage classes in use in the InMotion bucket and the number of objects assigned to each:

SELECT storage_class, count(*) 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"
GROUP BY storage_class
ORDER BY storage_class

The results were as follows:

SELECT storage_class, count(*) 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

41 Standard objects?! I wasn’t sure what they were and so added object size into the query:

SELECT storage_class, count(*), sum(size)
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"
GROUP BY storage_class
ORDER BY storage_class
SELECT storage_class, count(*), sum(size)
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

The zero size and subsequent investigations confirmed that the Standard objects were prefixes, and so presented no problems.

Next, I wanted to check for unwanted previous versions of objects using the following query:

SELECT key, size 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable" 
WHERE is_latest = FALSE

This query returned another prefix, so again there were no actions needed:

SELECT key, size 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

Further investigation found that this prefix also has no storage class assigned to it, as seen in the results above.

For Old Time’s Sake

I then wanted to see the youngest and oldest objects for each storage class, and ran the following query:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"
GROUP BY storage_class
ORDER BY storage_class

What I got back was unexpected:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

S3 Inventory stores dates as Unix Epoch Time, so I needed a function to transform the data to a human-legible format. Traditionally this would involve CAST or CONVERT, but as Athena uses Presto additional functions are available such as from_unixtime:

from_unixtime(unixtime) → timestamp

Returns the UNIX timestamp unixtime as a timestamp.

I updated the query to include this function:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"
GROUP BY storage_class
ORDER BY storage_class

This time the dates were human-legible but completely inaccurate:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

I then found a solution in Stack Overflow, where a user suggested converting a Unix Epoch Time value from microseconds to milliseconds. I applied this suggestion to my query by dividing the last modified dates by 1000:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"
GROUP BY storage_class
ORDER BY storage_class

The results after this looked far more reasonable:

SELECT storage_class, 
FROM "s3inventory"."s3inventorytable"

And EpochConverter confirmed the human time was correct for the Deep Archive MIN(last_modified_date) Unix value of 1620147401000:

So there we go! An introduction to Athena and utilization of the data from S3 Inventory!

If this post has been useful, please feel free to follow me on the following platforms for future updates:

Thanks for reading ~~^~~